Both paracetamol and ibuprofen are safe and effective painkillers for children. It's important to follow the manufacturer's instructions so you know how much medicine to give your child, and how often to give it. If you're not sure, get advice from your pharmacist, GP or health visitor.
Never give the medicine more often than recommended, and don't give any more than the stated dose.
Always keep medicines stored in a safe place at home.
You can give paracetamol to children aged two months or over to relieve pain and reduce fever. Make sure you've got the right strength for your child. Overdosing can be dangerous. Check with your pharmacist when you buy it and read the instructions carefully.
Ibuprofen can be given to relieve pain and reduce fever in children who are aged three months and over and weigh 5kg (11lbs) or more. Check the correct dose for your child's age.
Avoid ibuprofen if your child has asthma, unless advised otherwise by your GP.
Never give aspirin to children under 16 unless it's specifically prescribed by a doctor. It has been linked with a rare but dangerous illness called Reye's syndrome .
Liquid paracetamol and ibuprofen are available for babies and young children. Using an oral syringe – available from your pharmacist – makes it easier to measure the medicine and give it to your child.
Older children may be able to swallow paracetamol or ibuprofen tablets with plenty of water.
Soluble paracetamol and ibuprofen tablets that dissolve in water are also available. These are only suitable for children aged 12 or older.
Remember to keep all medicines out of the reach of children and out of their sight, if possible.
Some airlines permit babies who are two days old to fly, whereas others will only allow babies who are at least two weeks old on board.
There are no specific regulations regarding this matter, so check with your airline before booking. In some cases, if your baby is less than two weeks old, you may be asked to provide a letter from your GP stating they are fit to fly.
If you have given birth by caesarean section, you may not be allowed to fly until after your six-week postnatal check-up and if your GP gives you the all clear.
Most airlines charge 10% of the adult fare for a child under two years old to fly without a seat of their own. If you want your baby to have their own seat, it may cost 50-70% of the adult fare, but you should always check with the individual airline.
If you have booked your child a seat, you will also have to pre-book a travel cot or "sky cot" for them. These are usually only available on long-haul flights. Alternatively, you can arrange with the airline to bring a baby car seat with you. Very young children should not be allowed to sit in a normal adult aeroplane seat without a travel cot or equivalent.
You should avoid taking a baby to parts of the world where they might be exposed to diseases they are too young to be vaccinated against. For example, babies under the age of six months cannot receive a vaccination against yellow fever because of the risk of developing a brain infection while babies under the age of two months cannot take anti-malaria tablets.
GOV.UK provides travel and health advice for different countries around the world.
Remember that as the result of a change in the law, children can no longer travel on their parent's passport. You will need to apply for a passport for your baby if they are travelling to a foreign country with you.
How Can I My Baby Safe During Hot Weather?#
Babies and young children can become ill during very hot weather. Their health can be seriously affected by:
Try these tips for keeping your child happy and healthy in the heat.
Keep your baby cool and protect them from the sun.
It depends on your child’s age.
Children and young people of all ages should try to minimise the time they spend sitting down – for example:
Children under five who can walk unaided should be physically active every day for at least 180 minutes (three hours), spread throughout the day, indoors or out.
If your child is under five, you should encourage them to do:
As part of your child’s 60 or more minutes, they should also do activities that strengthen their muscles and bones.
How you can help your child
You can help by encouraging your child to find activities they enjoy, and by building physical activity into family life. Most children love running around a park or playing in a playground. Live Well has more tips for how to get active with your kids.
Team sports, such as football, basketball and volleyball, can also be great fun. If your child doesn’t like team sports, there are plenty of other activities, such as dance and martial arts.
There are no legal age restrictions for buying over-the-counter (OTC) medicines.
What are OTC medicines?
OTC medicines are classed as "general sales list (GSL)" medicines. You can buy GSL medicines from pharmacies, supermarkets and other retail outlets without the supervision of a pharmacist and without a prescription.
OTC medicines include those used to treat minor illnesses that you may feel aren’t serious enough to see your GP or pharmacist about. For example:
For more information about medicines and the law, see What is the law on the sale of medicines? There is also more information on medicines and how they are regulated.
The Royal Pharmaceutical Society does not have any specific rules on a suitable age for buying OTC medicines. Similarly, the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA), which makes sure that medicines and medical devices work and are safe, has not issued any guidance. However, some retail outlets have specific company policies that restrict the sale of OTC medicines to children.
Always check the packaging to find out whether an OTC medicine is suitable for children. Some OTC medicines should not be given to children. For example, children under 16 shouldn’t take aspirin.
You should always check the dosage instructions for children, as they may be different from those for adults.
There may be some situations where a retail outlet cannot sell an OTC medicine to a child for their use because the medicine isn’t licensed for children of that age. For example, some antacid medicines, which relieve heartburn, are only recommended for children who are aged 12 and over.
Listed below are links to different Women's health information.
Below Is A Link For Health Information For Women Aged Between 18 & 39:
Below Is A Link For Health Information For Women Aged Between 40 & 60:
Below Is A Link For Health Information Regarding The Menopause:
Listed below, are links for advice on different health issues for men.
For Health Information For Men Aged Between 18 & 39 Select The Link Below:
For Health Information For Men Aged Between 40 & 60 Select The Link Below:
For Health Information For Men Regarding Erectile Dysfunction Select The Link Below:
For Information Regarding Well Man Clinics Select The Link Below:
Sunbeds give out ultraviolet (UV) rays that increase your risk of developing skin cancer (both malignant melanoma and non-melanoma). Many sunbeds give out greater doses of UV rays than the midday tropical sun.
The risks are greater for young people. Evidence shows that:
It's illegal for people who are under the age of 18 to use sunbeds. The Sunbeds (Regulation) Act 2010 makes it an offence for someone operating a sunbed business to permit those under 18 to:
The GOV.UK website has further details about the Sunbeds (Regulation) Act 2010.
Sunbeds, sunlamps and tanning booths give out the same type of harmful radiation as sunlight. UVA rays make up about 95% of sunlight. They can cause your skin to age prematurely, making it look coarse, leathery and wrinkled. UVB rays make up about 5% of sunlight and burn your skin.
A tan is your body's attempt to protect itself from the damaging effect of UV rays. Using a sunbed to get a tan isn't safer than tanning in the sun. It may even be more harmful, depending on factors such as:
In 2006, the Scientific Committee on Consumer Products concluded the maximum ultraviolet radiation (UVR) from sunbeds should not exceed 0.3W/m2, or 11 standard erythema doses per hour (erythema means reddening of the skin caused by sunburn). These 11 standard doses are the same as exposure to the tropical sun, which the World Health Organization (WHO) describes as extreme.
Prolonged exposure to UV rays increases your risk of developing malignant melanoma, the most serious form of skin cancer.
You can't always see the damage UV rays cause. The symptoms of skin damage can take up to 20 years to appear.
UV rays can also damage your eyes, causing problems such as irritation, conjunctivitis or cataracts , particularly if you don't wear goggles.
The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) issued advice on the health risks associated with UV tanning equipment, such as sunbeds, sunlamps and tanning booths. They recommend you should not use UV tanning equipment if you:
The HSE advice also includes important points to consider before deciding to use a sunbed. For example, if you decide to use a sunbed, the operator should advise you about your skin type and how long you should limit your session to.
The GOV.UK website has further details about the Sunbeds (Regulations Act 2010).
Gynaecomastia (sometimes referred to as "man boobs") is a common condition that causes boys’ and men’s breasts to swell and become larger than normal. It is most common in teenage boys and older men.
Signs vary from a small amount of extra tissue around the nipples to more prominent breasts. It can affect one or both breasts.
Sometimes, the breast tissue can be tender or painful, but this isn’t always the case.
Gynaecomastia can have several causes.
Gynaecomastia can be caused by an imbalance between the sex hormones testosterone and oestrogen. Oestrogen causes breast tissue to grow. While all men produce some oestrogen, they usually have much higher levels of testosterone, which stops the oestrogen from causing breast tissue to grow.
If the balance of hormones in the body changes, this can cause a man’s breasts to grow. Sometimes, the cause of this imbalance is unknown.
Some growth in breast tissue is not due to extra body fat from being overweight, so losing weight or doing more exercise may not improve the condition. However, a common reason for gynaecomastia is that being very overweight can increase levels of oestrogen, which can cause breast tissue to grow.
Newborn baby boys
Gynaecomastia can affect newborn baby boys, because oestrogen passes through the placenta from the mother to the baby. This is temporary and will disappear a few weeks after the baby is born.
During puberty, boys’ hormone levels vary. If the level of testosterone drops, oestrogen can cause breast tissue to grow. Many teenage boys have some degree of breast enlargement. Gynaecomastia at puberty usually clears up as boys get older and their hormone levels become more stable.
As men get older, they produce less testosterone. Older men also tend to have more body fat, and this can cause more oestrogen to be produced. These changes in hormone levels can lead to excess breast tissue growth.
In rare cases, gynaecomastia can be caused by:
If you’re worried about breast tissue growth, see your GP.
If your GP thinks treatment is needed, there are two types of treatment for gynaecomastia:
Your GP can discuss the treatment options with you. Read more about male breast reduction surgery.
Procedures such as breast reduction surgery are not usually available on the NHS, unless there is a clear medical need for them. For example, if you have had gynaecomastia for a long time, it has not responded to other treatments and it is causing you a lot of distress or pain, your GP may refer you to a plastic surgeon to discuss the possibility of surgery.
Always see your GP if the area is very painful or there is an obvious lump. Sometimes, the lump may need to be removed. Gynaecomastia is not related to breast cancer, but if you're worried about breast swelling, see a GP.
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